In the absence of DTMF capability, telephones dial by repeatedly switching a current on the line. This is done at a rate of approximately ten switches per second. The switching current does not propagate beyond the local exchange and so is very difficult to detect accurately by a remote system. This method of dialing is used by all rotary dial telephones.
Pulse dialing or loop disconnect dialing, also called Rotary or Decadic dialling in the United Kingdom (because up to 10 pulses are sent), is pulsing in which a direct-current pulse train is produced by interrupting a steady signal according to a fixed or formatted code for each digit and at a standard pulse repetition rate.
Dial pulsing originated with a rotary dial integrated into telephone instruments, for the purpose of signaling. Subsequent applications use electronic circuits to generate dial pulses.
The pulses are generated through the making and breaking of the telephone connection (akin to flicking a light switch on and off); the audible clicks are a side-effect of this. As a result, all that is really needed to dial a number with pulse dialing is a switch. With practice it is possible to dial phone numbers by flashing the hook switch (rapidly clicking the receiver switch hook by hand). Each digit in the number is represented by a different number of rapid clicks. In most countries one click is used for the digit 1, two clicks for 2, and so on with ten clicks for the digit 0. Two exceptions to this are New Zealand, which requires ten clicks for 0, nine clicks for 1, and so on, and Sweden which requires one click for 0, two clicks for 1, and so on.
Individual digits in a phone number need to be separated with a short pause so as not to bleed into each other and in keypad based pulse dialing digits need to be 'cached' when dialed rapidly. In rotary systems this is taken care of by having the user wait for the rotor to revolve back to the start position before the next digit can be dialed.
Most fixed-line phones now use dual tone multi frequency (DTMF, also called touch tone or tone dialing) rather than pulse dialing, but most telephone equipment retains support for pulse dialing for backward compatibility. ISDN and GSM mobile phones perform call setup using digital signaling systems.
List of telephony terms:
3gpp - a-law - abbreviated dialing - adsl - ani - answering machine - apn - automatic ring back - b-channel - baud - bell 202 modem - bit rate - bonding - bri - busy signal - cable modem - call-progress tones - call accounting - call capture - call forwarding - call originator - call park - call pick-up - call transfer - call waiting - call waiting deluxe - called party - caller id - caller id spoofing - calling party - carrier wave - cbr - ccitt - cdma - cdma2000 - cellular repeater - celp - channel - clec - clock rate - codec - collect call - conference - conference call - crc - csd - d-channel - data compression - device driver - dial-up - dial - dial tone - direct-inward-dialing - direct distance dialing - distinctive ring - dnis - dsl - dsp - dtmf - dtr - duplex - echo cancellation - edge - extension - fax - fcc - fdma - fidonet - follow-me - g.711 - g.723.1 - g.723 - g.726 - g.lite - gprs - gps - gsm - h.323 - harmonic - headphones - hscsd - hspda - iad - idsn - internet call waiting - isp - ivr - jack plug - local loop - long distance - microcontroller - mobile phone - modem - modulation - mu-law - music-on-hold - night service - off-hook - on-hook - pabx - pager - payphone - pbx - pcm - pots - prank call - precise tone plan - pstn - pulse dialling - push to talk - ring modulation - ring tone - ringback - ringing signal - rj11 - roaming - serial communications - serial port - signal noise - sim - simplex - sit - sms - softmodem - switchboard operator - tapi - tdma - telecommunications - telemarketing - telephone - telephone call - telephone card - telephone company - telephone exchange - telephone line - telephone number - telephone numbering plan - telephone operator - telephone switchboard - telephony - tts - twisted pair - umts - v.32 - v.32bis - v.34 - v.42bis - vbr - vertical service code - voicemail - voip - vox - wap - wav - wi-fi - wimax - wire
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